Creme - a colour that has no shimmer/glitter/holo. Often mistaken as Matte. Take a look at OPI Gotta Get Pink!
Matte - A polish that dries matte, no shiny. Please do not get Creme and Matte mixed up :D
Neons often dry matte. Take a look at Matte Grape
Holographic - A polish that has rainbow coloured glitter and they look amazing in the sun! Take a look at Worth The Risque or under the 'Holographic' label :)
Holographic Glitter - A polish that has scattered pieces of glitter than shine different colors of the rainbow. Take a look at OPI Text Me Text You
Shimmer - A polish that has little bits of different coloured shimmer to the base or very similar to the base colour. These can vary quite a lot. Take a look at Misa No Shrinking Violetta and Superstitious or Pretty and Privileged
Frosted - A very smooth and fine shimmer. Take a look at OPI Suzi & The Lifeguard and Tangerine Scene for an example
Pearl - Similar to Frosted but has a somewhat pearl quality to it. Take a look at Misa Little Tease
Glitter - A polish that has chunks of glitter, often bigger and grittier than shimmer. Take a look at Cherry Much In Love, Emerald Sparkle or Midnight Blue Glitter
Duo-chrome - A nail polish that often flashes different colours. Take a look at OPI Tahoe Topaz and Santee Rainbow Pink
Irridescent - A shimmer in a polish that is often a different colour. Take a look at OPI Yokohama Twilight
Jelly - a translucent polish, usually very very shiny and creme. Take a look at Zoya Morgan.
Neon - a super bright polish that usually dries matte. If they are sheer, you can layer them over a white. Take a look at Pure Energy, The Grass Is Greener On My Side or Pink Flame
Sheer - a polish that is usually used for French Manicures, designed to show the white tip. Take a look at Ready To Wear, Bailey and I'm Yours.
If there are any I have forgotten or there is anything you would like me to explain, feel free to ask :D
NOTE: I will be updating the links shortly to newer photos.